— though possessed of density, trees have space within them.
The putting forth of flowers and fruits is always taking place in them.
They have heat within them in consequence of which leaf, bark, fruit and flower are seen to droop.
They sicken and dry up. That shows they have perception of touch.
Through sound of wind and fire and thunder, their fruits and flowers drop down.
Sound is perceived through the ear. Trees have, therefore, ears, and do hear.
A creeper winds round a tree and goes all about its sides. A blind thing cannot find its way.
For this reason it is evident that trees have vision. Then again trees recover vigour
and put forth flowers in consequence of odours good and bad,
of the sacred perfume of various kinds of dhupas. It is plain that trees have scent.
They drink water by their roots.
They catch diseases of divers kinds.
Those diseases again are cured by different operations.
From this it is evident that trees have perception of taste.
As one can suck up water through a bent lotus stalk, trees also,
with the aid of the wind, drink through their roots. They are
susceptible of pleasure or pain, and grow when cut or lopped off.
From these circumstances I see that trees have life. They are not inanimate.
Fire and wind cause the water thus sucked up to be digested.
Accordingly again, to the quantity of water taken up, the tree
advances in growth and becomes humid. In the bodies of all subtle things
the five elements occur. In each the proportions are different.